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2019年考博英语提升写作五大技巧

2019考博英语写作技能之统一性 TA18 gq  
  一个段落内的各个句子必须从属于一个中心,任何游离于中心思想之外的句子都是不可取的。请看下例: q Dd~2"er  
  Joe and I decided to take the long trip we'd always wanted across the country. We were like young kids buying our camper and stocking it with all the necessities of life. Bella bakes the best rhubarb pie. We started out in early spring from Minneapolis and headed west across the northern part of the country. We both enjoyed those people we met at the trailer park. Joe received a watch at his retirement dinner. To our surprise, we found that we liked the warm southern regions very much, and so we decided to stay here in New Mexico. j1$8# /r;c  
  本段的主题句是段首句,controlling idea(中心思想)是take the long trip across the country。文中出现两个irrelevant sentences(不相干的句子),一个是Bella bakes the best rhubarb pie,这一段是讲的是Joe and I ,中间出现一个Bella是不合适的。还有,Joe received a watch at his retirement dinner这一句更是与主题句不相关。 j-@kW'K  
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2019考博英语写作技能之完整性 nv0@xnbz  
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  正象我们前面说得那样,一个段落的主题思想靠推展句来实现,如果只有主题句而没有推展句来进一步交待和充实,就不能构成一个完整的段落。同样,虽然有推展句,但主题思想没有得到相对圆满的交待,给读者一种意犹未尽的感觉。这样的段落也不能完成其交际功能。 'vV$]/wBF  
  例如:Physical work can be a useful form of therapy for a mind in turmoil. Work concentrates your thoughts on a concrete task. Besides, it is more useful to work —— you produce something rather than more anxiety or depression. \p&~ ,%  
  本段的主题句是段首句。本段的两个推展句均不能回答主题句中提出的问题。什么是“a mind in turmoil”(心境不平静)Physical work又如何能改变这种情况?为什么它能起therapy的作用?读者得不到明确的答案。因此,要达到完整就必须尽可能地简明。 U'( sn  
  例如:It is not always true that a good picture is worth a thousand words. Often writing is much clearer than a picture. It is sometimes difficult to figure out what a picture means, but a careful writer can almost always explain it. n^(A=G  
  段首句所表达的主题思想是一种看法,必须有具体事例加以验证。上述两个推展句只是在文字上对主题作些解释,整个段落内容空洞,简而不明。如果用一两个具体的例子的话,就可以把主题解释清楚了。 bKVj[r8D~  
  比如下段:It is not always true that a picture is worth a thousand words. Sometimes, pictures are pretty useless things. If you can't swim and fall in the river and start gulping water, will you be better off to hold up a picture of yourself drowning, or start screaming "Help"? K<sC F[  
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2019考博英语写作技能之连贯性(coherence) E|EgB33S  
  连贯性包括意连和形连两个方面,前者指的是内在的逻辑性,后者指的是使用转换词语。当然这两者常常是不可分割的。只有形连而没有意连,句子之间就没有内在的有机的联系;反之,只有意连而没有形连,有时行文就不够流畅。 l3o#@sz:  
  1)、意连 #G]!%  
  段落中句子的排列应遵循一定的次序,不能想到什么就写什么。如果在下笔之前没有构思,边写边想,写写停停,那就写不出一气呵成的好文章来。下面介绍几种常见的排列方式。 Z,7R;,qX  
  A.按时间先后排列(chronological arrangement) kYwb -;  
  We had a number of close calls that day. When we rose, it was obviously late and we had to hurry so as not to miss breakfast; we knew the dining room staff was strict about closing at nine o'clock. Then, when we had been driving in the desert for nearly two hours —— it must have been close to noon —— the heat nearly hid us in; the radiator boiled over and we had to use most of our drinking water to cool it down. By the time we reached the mountain, it was our o'clock and we were exhausted. Here, judgement ran out of us and we started the tough climb to the summit, not realizing that darkness came suddenly in the desert. Sure enough, by six we were struggling and Andrew very nearly went down a steep cliff, dragging Mohammed and me along with him. By nine, when the wind howled across the flat ledge of the summit, we knew as we shivered together for warmth that it had not been our lucky day. FN[R(SLbL  
  本段从“rose”(起床)写起,然后是吃早餐(“not to miss breakfast”, “closing at nine o'clock”),然后是“close to noon”,一直写到这一天结束(“By nine——”)。 `b5 @}',  
  B. 按位置远近排列(spatial arrangement)。 \,UZX&ip  
  例如: From a distance, it looked like a skinny tube, but as we got closer, we could see it flesh out before our eyes. It was tubular, all right, but fatter than we could see from far away. Furthermore, we were also astonished to notice that the building was really in two parts: a pagoda sitting on top of a tubular one-story structure. Standing ten feet away, we could marvel at how much of the pagoda was made up of glass windows. Almost everything under the wonderful Chinese roof was made of glass, unlike the tube that it was sitting on, which only had four. Inside, the tube was gloomy, because of the lack of light. Then a steep, narrow staircase took us up inside the pagoda and the light changed dramatically. All those windows let in a flood of sunshine and we could see out for miles across the flat land. =1;=  
  本段的写法是由远及近,从远处(“from a distance”)写起,然后“get closer”,再到(“ten feet away”),最后是“inside the pagoda”……当然,按位置远近来写不等于都是由远及近。根据需要,也可以由近及远,由表及里等等。 K ?$#nt p  
  C. 按逻辑关系排列(logical arrangement) Yepe=s+9  
  a. 按重要性顺序排列(arrangement in order of importance) al9.}  
  If you work as a soda jerker, you will, of course, not need much skill in expressing yourself to be effective. If you work on a machine, your ability to express yourself will be of little importance. But as soon as you move one step up from the bottom, your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word. And the further away your job is from manual work, the larger the organization of which you are an employee, the more important it will be that you know how to convey your thoughts in writing or speaking. In the very large business organization, whether it is the government, the large corporation, or the Army, this ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a man can possess. {U!St@  
  这一段谈的是表达能力,它的重要性与职业,身份有关,从“not need much skill”或“of little importance”到“more important”,最后是“most important”。 U!5)5c}G  
  b.由一般到特殊排列(general-to-specific arrangement) pI [ZBoR~  
  If a reader is lost, it is generally because the writer has not been careful enough to keep him on the path. This carelessness can take any number of forms. Perhaps a sentence is so excessively cluttered that the reader, hacking his way through the verbiage, simply doesn't know what it means. Perhaps a sentence has been so shoddily constructed that the reader could read it in any of several ways. Perhaps the writer has switched tenses, or has switched pronouns in mid-sentence, so the reader loses track of when the action took place or who is talking. Perhaps sentence B is not logical sequel to sentence A —— the writer, in whose head the connection is clear, has not bothered to provide the missing link. Perhaps the writer has used an important word incorrectly by not taking the trouble to look it up. He may think that "sanguine" and "sanguinary" mean the same thing, but the difference is a bloody big one. The reader can only infer what the writer is trying to imply. Fig&&b a  
  这一段谈的是a writer's carelessness,先给出一个general statement作为主题句,然后通过5个 "perhaps"加以例证。 ;,'igdold  
  c. 由特殊到一般排列(specific-to-general arrangement) ~:Uw g+]j  
  I do not understand why people confuse my Siamese cat, Prissy, with the one I had several years ago, Henry. The two cats are only alike in breed. Prissy, a quiet, feminine feline, loves me dearly but not possessively. She likes to keep her distance from people, exert her independence and is never so rude as to beg, lick, or sniff unceremoniously. Her usual posture is sitting upright, eyes closed, perfectly still. Prissy is a very proper cat. Henry, on the other hand, loved me dearly but possessively. He was my shadow from morning till night. He expected me to constantly entertain him. Henry never cared who saw him do anything, whether it was decorous or not, and he usually offended my friends in some way. The cat made himself quite comfortable, on the top of the television, across stranger's feet or laps, in beds, drawers, sacks, closets, or nooks. The difference between them is imperceptible to strangers. 6 &U+6gb  
  本段的主题句是段首句,它仅提出一个问题:为什么两只猫会被搞混。然后对两者进行比较,末句才下结论。 #%3rT U  
  2)、形连 U_yE& 6 T  
  行文的逻辑性常常要靠适当的转换词语及其他手段来实现。请读下面这一段文字并找出文中用以承上启下的词语: [e e%c Xo  
  Walter's goal in life was to become a successful surgeon. First, though, he had to get through high school, so he concentrated all his efforts on his studies —— in particular, biology, chemistry, and math. Because he worked constantly on these subjects, Walter became proficient in them; however, Walter forgot that he needed to master other subjects besides those he had chosen. As a result, during his junior year of high school, Walter failed both English and Latin. Consequently, he had to repeat these subjects and he was almost unable to graduate on schedule. Finally, on June 6, Walter achieved the first step toward realizing his goal. C_:k8?  
  本文中起承上启下的词语有两种,一种是转换词语(transitional words or phrases),另一种是起转换作用的其他连接手段(linking devices)。前者依次有:first, though, so, in particular, and, because, however, besides, as a result, both…and, consequently, and, finally.后者依次是:he, he, his, his, he, these, them, he, those, his, he, these, his. 本段中共有词汇105个,所使用的转换词语及其他连接用语共26个词,约占该段总词汇量的四分之一。由此可见,掌握好transitions不仅对行文的流(smoothness)有益,而且对于学生在半个小时内写120个词也是不无好处的。 HG >j5  
  一个段落里如果没有transitions也就很难有coherence了.我们看下面一个例子:   Speaking and writing are different in many ways. Speech depends on sounds. Writing uses written symbols. Speech developed about 500 000 en211ago. Written language is arecent development. It was invented only about six thousand years ago. Speech is usually informal. The word choice of writing is often relatively formal. Pronunciation and accent often tell where the speaker is from. Pronunciation and accent are ignored in writing. A standard diction and spelling system prevails in the written language of most countries. Speech relies on gesture, loudness, and rise and fall of the voice. Writing lacks gesture, loudness and the rise and fall of the voice. Careful speakers and writers are aware of the differences. 4b]a&_-}  
  本段中除了第6句开头出现一个起过渡作用的"it"之外,没有使用其他的过渡词语.这样,文中出现许多重复的词语,全段读起来也显得生硬而不自然。如果加上必要的过渡词语来修饰的话,这一段就成了下面一个流畅连贯的段落: F9q8SA#"  
  Speaking and writing are different in many ways. Speech depends on sounds; writing, on the other hand, uses written symbols. Speech was developed about 500 000 years ago, but written language is a recent development, invented only about six thousand years ago. Speech is usually informal, while the word choice of writing, by contrast, is often relatively formal. Although pronunciation and accent often tell where the speaker is from, they are ignored in wiring because a standard diction and spelling system prevails in most countries. Speech relies on gesture, loudness, and the rise and fall of the voice, but writing lacks these features. Careful speakers and writers are aware of the differences. DrW#v- d  
  4、有损连贯性的几种情况: VxO%rq3  
  考博考生在考博英语写作中经常出现下面几种错误: =dP{Gh  
  1、不必要的改变时态,比如: In the movie, Robert Redford was a spy. He goes to his office where he found everybody dead. Other spies wanted to kill him, so he takes refuge with Julie Christie. At her house, he had waited for the heat to die down, but they come after him anyway. !{^\1QK  
  2、不必要的改变单复数,比如: Everybody looks for satisfaction in his life. They want to be happy. But if he seeks only pleasure in the short run, the person will soon run out of pleasure and life will catch up to him. They need to pursue the deeper pleasure of satisfaction in work and in relationships. ;)0w:Zn/[  
  3、不必要的改变人称,比如: Now more than ever, parents need to be in touch with their children's activities because modern life has the tendency to cause cleavages in the family. You need to arrange family like it so that family members will do things together and know one another. You need to give up isolated pleasures of your own and realize that parents have a set of obligations to sponsor togetherness and therefore sponsor knowledge. 5-u=o )>  
  因此考博英语写作中,一定要注意时态,人称以及数的变化是否正确,要注意保持一致。 w*j$uW6{  
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2019考博英语写作技能之书写和移行 |w}w.%  
  英文书写应符合书写规范,英文字母要写清楚、写整齐、写美观,字母的大小和字母之间的距离要匀称。书写应做到字形秀丽漂亮,通篇匀称和谐。 jZfx Jm  
  写英文字母要掌握正确笔顺。如小写字母i ,应该先写下面的部分,然后再打点。有的学生却按写汉字的习惯从上到下写,写快了,就会把点和下面的竖笔连在一起,显得十分别扭。字形t应为两笔。不少人却将两笔合成一笔,看上去不像t,倒像l或是e,难以辨认。另外,把r写成v,把q写成把g,把k写成h等等,都是中学生书写中常见的毛病。 U4?(A@z9^  
  不少人在四线三格的练习纸上书写尚有规矩,能按字母的占格、高低和大小要求书写,但在白纸或横线纸上书写,却显得十分幼稚拙劣。字母或跳上跳下,或一律写成同一高度,占上中两格的字母与占中下两格的字母完全没有高低之别。这些现象都要防止。 7J$b$P0}  
  另外,书写时还要注意词与词之间要保持一定的距离,不能紧靠在一起。字母之间的连写也应该按照习惯,不能随意乱来。 =(AtfW^H  
  在一篇字数有限的作文里,我们还要注意尽量不把一个单词拆开移行。万一要移行,则必须以音节为单位进行,如revolution这个词,依照音节移行的原则可以按re-,revo-, revolu-这几种方法移行。在移行时,我们还应特别注意以下几点: ["<nq`~  
  1. 单音节词不能移行,即使是字母较多的单音节词,如through等也不能例外。 Tn-C>=tR~%  
  2.缩略词如Mr.、Dr.等不能和后面的名字拆开移行。 缩略的专用名词如U.K.(the United Kingdom)、U.S.A(United States of America)等也不能拆开移行。 iyx>q!P  
  3.时间、量度及货币单位应视为一个整体;不能分开移行。 ][PzgzG  
  如: 11:00 P.M. 应写在一行内,不能将11:00和PM.分开移行;写38℃时,不能将38和℃分开移行。 }WFf''Z-  
  4.由“年、月、日”表示的日期。如果必须分开移行只能将“月、日”与“年”分开。如January 6,1980不能将January和6分开移行,但可以把January 6,和1980分成两行。 |V[9}E: h  
  5.含双写辅音字母的单词,在移行时要将辅音字母拆开。如better可拆成better,necessary可拆成necessary。 ihL/n  
  但如果双写辅音字母属于词根,后面又加了后缀,就不能将两个辅音字母拆开。如drill加上-ing后构成了drilling,就不可以将它拆成dril-ling,而只能拆为drilling。 r WtZj} A  
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2019考博英语写作技能之作文格式 6x{<e4<n  
  1.四边的距离 wy1X\PJjH  
  在书写时,上下左右要留有一定的空白距离。 ,M !tm7  
  2. 题目的写法 wl=61 Mb  
  题目应写在第一行的中间,题目左右两边的空白距离大致相等。 sf } Dh  
  题目的第一个单词的第一个字母必须大写。从第二个单词起,其中每个实义词的第一个字母大写,而冠词、介词和连词的第一个字母则一般小写。如: kW3E =pr  
  A Day to Remember Let's Go in for Sports !%mAh81{&/  
  写题目不要用括号或引号。题目后除了问号和感叹号之外,不加其它标点符号。 -php6$|  
  3.文章本体 D,l,`jv*  
  文章第一段的第一行应与题目隔一行或两行。每段的开头一般应该缩格,即向右缩进约四个字母的间隔;单词与单词之间须留一个字母的间隔,句与句之间须留两个字母的间隔。假若每行的最后一个单词写不下,最好不要轻易拆字移行,可将该单词移到后一行去书写。书写时,不要因为一行末尾还有一点空间就把一个词的前半截硬塞在那里,造成非移行不可的局面。实际上,移行过多是书写、打字或排印质量不高的表现。不必过分地去追求右边的整齐,宁可多空一些,每行长短错落,要比移行过多看上去舒服。另需注意,在英语写作时每句结束语后不能使用“。”而要用“.”如若是英语考试,则每一次这样失误会扣掉1分。 B= L&bx  
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