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applesky7 2011-02-22 11:40


课程概述 cMxuG'{=.  
考博翻译的重要性 ;vM&se63  
1、考博英语difficult 5>z`==N)  
2、考博翻译最难做。  )l 0\TF  
1)翻译是主观题。 J~.8.]gXW  
2)做翻译需要单词基础,语法基础,阅读基础和强大的汉语功底。 ~>8yJLZ.7  
        例:本次旅行有北京、上海等地。 +<#0V!DM  
               This trip/travel/tour includes Beijing and Shanghai. QD6<sw@]P  
3)各所学校的命题非常不稳定。 jz CA2N%  
英译汉 v|DgRPY  
考博翻译的概述 p6)Jzh_/  
翻译你做过吗? D^]g`V*N  
    做翻译不是看翻译 ~kHWh8\b:  
    Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe. b +b].,  
    在联系不同的民族和国家方面,电视或许以前从来没有像在最近欧洲事件中其如此大的作用。 =i'APeNaQ  
       在联系不同的民族和国家方面,电视像在最近欧洲事件中起的作用之大前所未见。 #)A.yK`u  
怎么做英译汉 L !/Zw~  
One might ask why speculation is permitted when there is so real a danger of loss. The basic reason is that speculation can perform useful functions in the market equilibrium and encourages faster entry of more suppliers. If the price change lagged until after an actual commodity shortage had occurred, the fluctuation would probably be sharper and more sudden. Remedial supply action could not be further delayed. Similarly, if speculators foresee a surplus in some commodity, their selling of futures will help drive the price down to some extent before the surplus actually occurs. When speculators foresee a shortage and bid up the price, they are also helping to conserve the present supply. As the price goes up, less of the commodity is purchased; a rise in price encourages users to economize. Similarly, a lowering of price encourages users to buy more, thus helping to sell the surplus which is developing. <L!9 as]w  
    The Renaissance embraced, first of all, an impressive record of new achievements in art, literature, science, philosophy, education and religion. Although the foundation of many of these was classical, they soon expanded beyond the measure of Greek and Roman influence. Indeed, many of the achievements in painting, science, politics and religion bore little relation to the classical heritage. Secondly, the Renaissance incorporated a number of dominant ideas and attitudes that gave it the impress of a unique society. Notable among these in general were optimism, and individualism; but the most significant of them all was humanism. In its broadest meaning humanism may be defined as emphasis on the human values. 42E%&DF  
It was a term derived from Cicero, who used it in the sense of devotion to the liberal arts, or the subjects most compatible with the dignity of man. The humanists rejected the Scholastic philosophy with its preoccupation with theology and logic. They strove for a smooth and elegant style that would appeal more to the aesthetic than to the rational side of man's nature. Y)V)g9  
翻译的步骤: r Uau? ?  
一、画竖线 SM? rss.=  
       目的:初步断开句子结构,化繁为简 _!qi`A  
       原则: GXk]u  
       1、拆出主句,分清从句; N [qNSo|  
       2、拆出主干,分清修饰; BIQQJLu  
       最佳方式:找断句点 "`6pF8k  
      1)连词;(2)引导词;(3)介词;(4)分词;(5to;(6)标点符号; $?Dcp^  
79We accept and welcome, therefore, as conditions to which we must accommodate ourselves, great inequality of environment; the concentration of business, industrial and commercial, in the hands of a few; and the law of competition between these, as being not only beneficial to the future progress of the race. 3ncL351k  
二、写汉字:以每一小节作为单位来写汉字 wZe>}1t  
       目的:初步了解每一个小结构的意思; bukdyo;l  
79We accept and welcome, therefore, as conditions to which we must accommodate ourselves, great inequality of environment; the concentration of business, industrial and commercial, in the hands of a few; and the law of competition between these, as being not only beneficial to the future progress of the race. NflwmMJ  
三、连汉字 _keI0ML-#  
       目的:把每一小节连接成为通顺的句子;需要适当地调整顺序,或者把一些不通顺的词语替换掉。 WALK@0E  
       调整顺序的本源是英语的结构和修饰关系。 c3aBPig\D  
       替换汉语词语的本源是依据英语的基本词义和上下文的意译。 /mK."5-cm  
79We accept and welcome, therefore, as conditions to which we must accommodate ourselves, great inequality of environment; the concentration of business, industrial and commercial, in the hands of a few; and the law of competition between these, as being not only beneficial to the future progress of the race. ->9waXRDz)  
因此,我们接受和欢迎环境的巨大不平等;生意、工业和商业集中在少数人手中和少数人之间的竞争法则,这作为我们自己必须适应的条件,因为这不仅仅对人类今后的进步有益。 ?B{,%2+  
因此,我们接受和欢迎环境的巨大不平等;工商贸集中在少数人手中以及少数人之间的竞争法则,这作为我们自己必须适应的条件,因为这不仅仅对人类今后的进步有益。(最终) |s!<vvp]  
3There are many facts in a given historical period that can be easily stuffed into our mind. but discernment in the selection of significant facts is a vastly more difficult thing and depends upon one's point of view. q.:j yj6  
我们的大脑很容易记住许多特定历史时期的事实,但是选择和鉴别重大事实却是更为艰难的事情并且取决于我们自己的观点。 ]^>RBegJBO  
英汉翻译技巧 MhDPf]` Gg  
一、词意选择,适当引申 D b&= N  
一、1)分析词根和词缀来翻译 UA3!28Y&E3  
一、2)分析词性来翻译  [1Q:  
一、3)分析上下文来翻译 BbG=vy8'l  
一、4)结合汉语习惯和固定搭配来翻译 ?m bI6fYv  
二、适当增加 Ha/Gn !l  
二、翻译成汉语后,在不改变英语意思的前提下,适当增加词语,使句子更通顺。 ALi3JU  
三、适当减少 dTVh{~/  
四、适当重复 LZ4Z]!V  
可以适当重复出原文省略的部分,或者把并列结构中的相同部分重复出来。 uB;PaZ G?{  
We don't retreat , we never have and never will. s*tzU.E (  
我们不会退却,我们从来没有后退过,今后也决不会退却。 @$7l  
五、词性转换 W61nJ7@  
五、把英语的词性变换成汉语的其他词性来翻译。 [pzo[0G 'v  
六、四字成语 k/m-jm_h  
练习 Gj- *D7X5  
Passage 3 |>dqZ_)v  
71The main impression growing out of twelve years on the faculty of a medical school is that the No1 health problem in the UStoday, even more than AIDS or cancer, is that Americans don't know how to think about health and illness. g E$@:j  
在医学院担任十二年教师,我所得到的主要印象是:当今美国的首要健康问题甚至比艾滋和癌症更为严重的是美国人不知该怎样对待健康和疾病。 5 8n(fdE  
 考博翻译的标准 ' p!\[* e  
1、准确 >U6 2vX"  
2、通顺 G|LcTV  
准确是前提,其次求通顺,另外检查译文的方式是多读译文。 qM 9> x:V  
定语从句前置的翻译 x}7`Q:k=  
1、定语从句前置 `y*o -St3  
即把定语从句翻译到它修饰的先行词的前面,并习惯用“的”来连接。 icXeB_&cS  
 Passage 3 +<7 a$/L?4  
72We fear the worst, expect the worst, thus invite the worst and the result is that we are becoming a nation of weaklings and hypochondriacs, a self-medicating society incapable of distinguishing between casual, everyday symptoms and those that require professional attention. de q L  
我们害怕最糟糕的事情发生,期望最糟糕的事情发生,从而招致了最糟糕的事情发生,其结果是我们美国正逐渐成为一个弱者和疑病症患者的民族,一个自我诊断的社会,而不能对轻微的日常症状和那些需要专业护理的症状加以区分。 F(;95TB  
 Passage 10 WXX08"  
1Genuine love is more likely to involve a process of growing in love rather than falling in love. This may sound terribly unromantic to some who are used to hearing talk about falling in love or being head over heels in love. xf 4`+[  
真爱更可能是一个萌生爱意的过程,而并非是坠入爱河。对于那些听惯了一见钟情,爱得神魂颠倒的人来说,这或许太不浪漫了。 u;H5p\zAzz  
 Passage 14 k(R&`  
2. In reality, the way one experiences old age is contingent upon circumstances of late-life eventsin what order they occur, how they occur, when they occurand the social supports one receives: adequate finances, shelter, medical care, social roles, religious support, recreation. y R_x:,|g  
事实上,一个人老年的经历如何,取决于晚年事件发生的环境和一个人所获得的社会支持:前者包括这些事件发生的先后顺序,怎样发生的,和何时发生的,后者包括足够的财力、住宿条件、医疗保障、社会地位、宗教支持、娱乐活动。 x>MY_?a  
 Passage 15 S1E=EVG  
2.  It is primarily a term for the socially elaborated segment of human behavior in any culture; and abnormality, is a term for the segment that particular civilization does not use. k%h%mz  
正常术语主要是用来指在任何文化中,社会所解释的那部分人类行为,而变态术语主要是用来指特定文化所不能接受的那部分人类行为。 3vRBK?Q.y  
 代词指代 ;`}b .S =n  
1、直接对应 %z5P%F'5   
2、指代明确 j[&C6l+wH  
3、用“这”等替代 gs9VCaIa  
 Passage 15 YN($rAkL  
3. Its variability among different people is essentially a function of the variability of the behavior patterns that different societies have created for themselves, and can never be wholly divorced from a consideration of culturally institutionalized types of behavior. ?%wM8?  
不同人之间正常行为的可变性主要是由不同社会为其自己所设立的行为模式的可变性所决定的,并且绝对不能完全脱离了文化的制度化的行为模式来加以考虑。 XE.Y?{,R$  
 如果定语从句结构简单,信息负载量不大,翻译时前置。 VQ'DNv| 9  
 定语从句后置的翻译 V8IEfU  
如果定语从句太复杂或里面包含的内容太多时,需要后置。 V0a)9\x(\  
1Contemporary technological reporting is full of notions of electronic communities in which people interact across regions or entire continents. :Tn1]a)f6  
地区之间甚至是整个大陆之间人们通过电子技术交流而构成电子社区,这种概念在现代技术报告中比比皆是 }q<%![%  
 2For example, electronic communication filters out and alters much of the subtlety, warmth, contextuality, and so on that seem important to fully human, morally engaged interaction. riY[p,  
例如,电子交流过滤并且改变了大多数的细微的心理差别,情绪的热烈程度,周围的环境等等,而这些似乎对于那些完全人性化涉及道德的交流来说显得非常重要 zx=AT  
 Born to Win ?R\:6x<  
    Each human being is born as something new, something that never existed before. Each is born with the capacity to win at life. Each person has a unique way of seeing, hearing, touching, tasting and thinking. Each has his or her own unique potentials---capabilities and limitations. Each can be a significant, thinking, aware, and creative being---a productive person, a winner. Hpq?I-g<^  
每个人生来就是一个先前从未存在过的崭新个体,他在人生中成功立业的能力与生俱来。每个人都以其独特的方式观察,轻轻触摸,体味和思索大千世界。每个人都可以凭自己的努力成为一个有价值,有头脑,有感悟和有创造性的人即成功者。(5) ?j-;;NNf  
人皆生而为新为前所未有则存在。人皆生而为赢。人皆有其特例独行之方式去审视,聆听,触摸,品味及思考因而都具备独特的潜质能力和局限。人皆能举足轻重,思虑明达,洞察秋毫,富有创意,成就功业(8分) 3m59EI-p  
人人皆生而为新,生于世而亘古未见。人人皆生而为赢,富于思而受用终生。人人皆特例独行所见,所闻,所感,所说,所品,所思异彩纷呈。人人皆卓尔不凡,知其所能,查其所限。人人皆是举足轻重,思虑明达,洞察秋毫,富有创意,人人皆是卓越的天才,人人兼具王者的风范。(10分) E1V;eoK.D  
 72For individual sportsmen, pilots and drivers, speed had the status of a privileged substance to which, in those early days, only a minority had full access. Mechanized speed made men, and a few women, into heroes, and it remains a commodity to which males, in particular, are attracted. b.sRB1  
对于个体的运动员,飞行员和驾驶员来说,速度具有一种特权的财富地位,在早期只有少数人才完全有办法获得这种地位。机械化的速度使得男性以及少数女性成为了英雄,速度俨然成为了一种商品,尤其是男性对此趋之若鹜。 v#o<. Ig  
 1 I have met such persons, and found that there was no topic that might come up in the course of the conversation concerning which they did not have some facts or figures to produce, but whose points of view were appalling. .~ yz1^ c  
我曾经碰到这样的一些人,并且发现在谈话过程中可能出现的所有话题他们都能够提供事实和数据来加以支持,但是他们的观点相当令人惊愕。 u@eKh3!  
 否定结构的翻译 TWk1`1|  
(一)部分否定: \`$RY')9|!  
           代词或者副词,all/both/every.../many/entirely/altogether/absolutely/wholly 268H!'!\  
           completely+not   并非所有...;并不是都... )3RbD#?  
           例:All that glitters not gold. GUqhm$6a  
               Both the windows are not open.  LAfv1  
               Everybody does not believe the rumour. 2E d  
(二)全部否定: H&3i[D!p  
           never/no/not/none/nobody/nothing/nowhere/neither/nor/not at all QwL'5ws{q  
           He is no professor. Z$&i"1{  
           None of my friends smoke. gjnTG:}}}+  
           Our great motherland has never before being so prosperous as it is today. Lavm  
(三)双重否定:是指同一个句子中出现两个否定词,即否定之否定 f}U@e0Lsb  
           not...not Lm}J& ^>  
           No spaceship can't be loaded with man. +~ L26T\8  
(四)注意具有否定意义的词 "Ooc;xD3<  
           The specification lacks detail. qqR8E&Y{  
           The error in calculation escape the accountant. lqe71](sK8  
           far from [J71aH  
           The newspaper...are far from ... y8QJ=v* B  
           beyond DRUvQf  
           He is anything but scholar. KqH_?r`  
           The machine is working none the worse. MU/3**zoW  
           might as well bn8`$FA^  
小结: Q1yj+)_  
        如果定语从句结构复杂,信息负载量比较大,翻译到先行词前面不通顺的话需要后置。这时可以和主句脱离单独成句,但常常需要重复先行词或者用代词重复。 ^&mJDRe  
 状语从句的翻译 MPg"n-g*  
状语从句的翻译方法 LAT%k2%Wx  
    英语中的状语从句可以直接翻译,但一般要把时间、条件、让步和原因状语从句翻译到主句之前。 ZC\&n4~7  
3Infatuation often entails feelings of insecurity whenever the "lovers" are separated; feelings of doubt, fickleness, uncertainty, and fear of loss often accompany infatuation. lIlmXjL0  
一旦相爱的双方分开,痴情经常伴随而来的是不安全的感觉;怀疑,朝三暮四,犹豫不决,患得患失经常伴随痴情而来。 UZ"jQJQ  
4Infatuation tends to be more manipulative than love because a lasting feeling of relationship probably has not developed, so that the individuals are still concerned mainly about their own needs and satisfactions. />,Tq!i\4}  
痴情之所以比爱情更具有操控性,是因为一种长久的感情关系或许还没有建立,这样一来相爱的双方个人都仍然主要关注的是他们各自的需要和满足感。 W$X@DXT=o  
2If man's mind cannot be turned into a logic-machine, neither can it function properly as a great emotional sponge, to be squeezed at will. kA1 C&  
如果人类的思维不能成为一台逻辑机器的话,那么它也不能成为一块巨大的感情海绵可以任意的挤压。 4tb y N  
Death is a dramatic, one-time crisis while old age is a day-by-day and year-by-year confrontation with powerful external and internal forces, a bittersweet coming to terms with one's own personality and one's life.1 f;w7YO+$p9  
死亡是戏剧般的,一次性的危机,然而衰老则是一天天一年年的与内外强大力量抗争的过程,一个苦乐参半的过程,逐渐适应自己的性格和自己的生活。 #r ;;d(  
 特殊句型的翻译——被动结构 0 ; bi*2U  
1. 首先可以主宾颠倒 a9=pZ1QAG  
2. 其次可以用让,给,叫,受到,得到,加以,得以,为...所,由...来,是...的等代 [ 4_JK  
替,但必要的时候增加人们或者有人等泛指的主语,少用被字。 _FJ,, /~  
The process of aging and eventual death must ultimately be accepted as the natural progression of the life cycle, the old completing their prescribed life spans and making way for the young.3 +?!x;qS^  
人们把变老的过程以及最后的死亡最终认为是生命周期的自然进化,老年人完成了他们的寿数给年轻人让路 cxNb !G  
 特殊句型的翻译——形式主语 \ tK{!v+  
It is..... y[W<vb+F  
形式主语可以当作词组翻译到句子最开头,用据.../有人.../...的是 79?%g=#=  
It is reported that... [= GVK  
It is taken that... D_HE!fl  
It is noticed that... Gw0_M&  
It is important that... D]s8w  
It can not be denied that... jBTXs 5q  
It can be said whitout exaggeration that... xgX"5Czvv`  
可以先翻译后面部分   这是... l|O)B #  
It is difficult to do translation. NiCH$+c\  
It is important that... 0x-58i0  
5For example, it has been reported that British businesses suffer around thirty major mishaps a year, revolving losses running into millions of pounds. These are caused by machine or human error and do not include human misuse in the form of fraud and sabotage. The cost of failures in domestically produced software in the United Kingdom alone is conservatively estimated at $ 900 million per year. i09w(k?  
例如,据报道英国的企业每年遭受大约30起重大的灾难。其中包含损失高达数百万英镑。这些是由机械故障和人为的过失所引起的并不包括以欺诈和破坏等形式所引起的人为的滥用。仅仅在英国国内生产的软件中其损失的代价,据保守的估计就多达每年9亿美元。 nJvDkh#h1  
 特殊句型的翻译——there be 句型 &@c?5Ie5  
先翻译英语的状语再加有 x*EzX4$x  
There is a temple on the hill.  在山上有一座庙。 QEavb h^S  
There is cup on the table.  桌上有一杯子。 7.r}98V  
There are two monks in the temple.  庙里有两个和尚。 ~1NK@= 7T  
增加人们,大家,我们等汉语的泛指主语 rT2gX^Mj&  
There is no agreement. lE8M.ho\  
直接翻译为汉语的无主句 +EmT+$>J  
 3There are many facts in a given historical period that can be easily stuffed into our mind, but discernment in the selection ofsignificant facts is a vastly more difficult thing and depends upon one's point of view. nZfU:N  
在特定的历史时期有很多事实能够轻易的被灌入到我们的大脑。但在鉴别和选择重要事实方面却是更加重要的事情,并且取决于每个人的观点或态度。 _86#$|kw  
 练习的角度: /-#1ys#F=  
拿到句子之后,5分钟左右模拟考试写下汉字 t3#My2=  
十分钟以上查阅词典,分析英语,修改汉语 H O^3v34ZO  
5分钟以上对照译文巩固成果 d$3;o&VUNI  
阅读文章的翻译: wH=L+bA>a  
15-20分钟模考 Zy}Qc")Z  
翻译英语文章 :QndeUw  
再做一遍题 ECO4ut.d  
对答案 V) $y  
巩固成果 U{IY F{;@  
 汉译英 z/JoU je  
常见错误分析 m3apeIEi[  
 多数事情是不能没有朋友而独自享受的,但是阅读却是可以的。 Bs@!S?  
 Few things can be enjoyed without friendsbut reading is  an exception. Quc,,#u  
 中美贸易之所以能迅速发展,根本原因在于… K3jPTAw=#  
 19世纪的精神生活比任何时代的精神生活都要复杂,这是由以下几个原因: !)jw o=l}J  
   第一,有关地区比以前大了,美国和俄罗斯作出了重大贡献; sr0.4VU1  
   第二,一项新兴的事物的主要源泉的科学取得的新的胜利,特别是在生物学、有 6.o8vC/PZ  
               机化学、地质学等方面。 ")/TbT Vu  
  The spiritual life is more complex than 4G:I VK9  
        大自然对人的恩赐,无论贫富,一律平等,所以人们对大自然全部一致并深深地依赖着。尤其在乡间,上千年来,人们一直以不变的方式生活着:种植庄稼和葡萄,酿酒和饮酒,喂牛和挤奶,除草和栽花;在周末去教堂祈祷和做礼拜;在节日到广场拉琴、跳舞和唱歌……往日的田园依旧是今日的温馨家园。这样,每个地方都有自己的传说。风俗也就延传了下来。 } {! #` 's  
All people are blessed by naturerich and poor alike. That account for their deep rooted attachment to herespecially in the countryside where their ways of life  have been kept intact for thousands of years. They grow crops and grapesbrew the wine that they drinkraise cows for milkand weed their garden for cultivation of flowers. On weekends they go to churchand on holidays they go to play musicwhile singing and dancing in open squares. Thus their olden homeland remain as sweet as ever each with a unique folk law from which its custom have derived. C~do*rnM^  
容易犯的错误: U({20  
   1. 词汇错误 D;f [7Cac  
       词的理解偏差 ;(a\F  
       词的上下搭配 ?'xTSAn  
      各学校考博题目的来源,这对我当老师非常有用,但对你们学生没有多大作用 =j)y.x(  
      已经整理好的学校有:北航,北师大,财科所,首师大,政法,党校,中科院,人大,社科院,美院,民大,但对学生没有多大作用 [x {S ,?6  
      你们学生需要的是句子分析,怎么去做翻译 Xx;RH9YYz  
       考博的题并不比考研的题难,所以也可以做考研的题目来练习 T Y|5O! <  
  2. 词语顺序的错误 h[5<S&  
  3. 语篇错误 ?e? mg  
      逐字翻译,画蛇添足  b>N) H  
      重复不当,不合习惯 /PP\L](  
      断句不当,割裂语篇 _n.2'  
汉译英翻译的三步策略 5lp L$  
汉译英翻译的错误: m oQ><>/  
    词汇:词的理解偏差,词的上下搭配错,词语顺序上的错,割裂语篇 t@GPB]3[  
汉译英翻译的三步策略: NLe+  
1、什么是句子? {HV$hU+_)Q  
   A sentence is a group of words which, when they are written down, begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark. Most sentences contain a subject and a verb. &G5=?ub  
一个句子就是一组词,在书面语中,每一个句子首词的第一个字母大写,句末用句号、问号或者感叹号;大多数句子有主语和谓语。 zVLv-U/=d  
结论1 j1!P:(  
   英语的句子中,大多数句子都有主语和谓语。那么汉英翻译,只要我们能把汉语转变成为准确通顺的英语,就需要搭建英语的主语和谓语等句式结构。 \V@Hf"=j  
   除了主语和谓语之外,当然还有修饰语。 NO4V{}?a  
   所以,定主语、找谓语、加修饰就成了汉英翻译的最简单,最有效,最不容易犯错误的方法。 v1hrRf2<  
汉英翻译三步策略 ?^z!yD\  
1.定主语 c5uT'P"  
2.找谓语 o0-7#2  
3.加修饰 -e=p*7']  
你知道我们图书馆所订购书籍的数量吗? mU1lEx$  
定主语:你 you _ =c>>X  
找谓语:知道数量吗?know the number? L[zg2y  
加修饰:知道书籍的数量,知道图书馆所订购书籍的数量 R5LzqT,/N:  
Do you know the number of the books ordered by our library? $!c)%qDq  
 汉译英翻译——定主语 9I>+Q&   
大多数英语句子都有主语和谓语 lAsDdxB`  
most sentences contain subject and verb Xtqjx@ye  
英语本身语法非常严谨,逻辑非常严密的特点,所以,在汉英翻译中,主语的确定就是成功构建英语句式结构的关键,也是保证英语译文和汉语原文功能对等的关键。 QDlEby m  
1.       确定原文的主语为译文主语 qvz2u]IOw  
Passage 122(社科院04年) `d#l o  
当前,国际形势正经历着自冷战结束以后最复杂、最深刻的变化。 6JWCB9$4  
At present, the international situation is experiencing the most complicated and profound changes since the end of Cold War. tE0DST/  
Passage 122(社科院04年) v*%#Fp,g8  
和平与发展仍然是摆在世界各国人民面前的两大课题。 aG7QLCL  
Peace and development are still the two subjects confronted with people all over the world. !|`G<WD  
Passage 15(社科院02年) <Vyv)#32o3  
我们正努力教育公民不要像西方国家那样过度消费,比如使用过多的空调、私人汽车、以及随意处理的产品。 @cPb*  
We are managing to educate citizens to avoid the behavior of over-consumption, such as the excessive use of air conditioners, private cars and disposable products at will. 0es[!  
如今我们有许多不同的选择:除传统的家常菜以外,还有营养保健配餐和方便可口的快餐食品。(武汉大学04年) ~<Z;)e  
Nowadays we have many varieties of choices: nutrition-balanced and healthy food, convenient and delicious fast food in addition to traditional homemade meal. `e]L.P_e?  
若原文主语为动词,需要变为动名词或者不定式 FX7=81**4  
Passage 24(社科院03年) Pl<r*d)h  
   帮助真正的穷人,要比仅仅缩小贫富差距更有价值。帮助下层社会的人重新回到社会主流中来,符合所有人的利益。 Z^,C><Yt  
Helping the truly poor is much worthier than merely narrowing inequalities. And helping the lower class rejoin mainstream of society is in the interests of all. V| b9zHh  
Passage 25(社科院03年) pfgFHNH:  
   推进现代化建设、完成祖国统一、维护世界和平与促进共同发展,是中国人民在新世纪的三大历史任务。 A_1cM#4  
To continue to propel the modernization drive, to achieve reunification of the motherland, and to safeguard world peace and promote common development are the three historical tasks of the Chinese people in the new century. WS8m^~S@\  
2.       重新确定主语 q}e"E cr  
A.     确定原文的宾语为译文的主语 OiNzN.}d  
伟大艺术的美学鉴赏和伟大的科学观念的理解都需要智慧。(中国科学院023月考博英语翻译试题)  r(iT&uz  
Wisdom is required both in appreciating great artistic works and in understanding great scientific concepts. L^} Z:I  
Passage 11 (社科院02年) .MkHB0 2N  
为了保证国民经济持续、快速、健康地发展,我们必须加快国有企业的改革步伐。 ^]w!ow41  
The speed of reform of state-owned enterprises must be accelerated to ensure sustained, rapid and sound development of the national economy. S-{[3$  
Passage 13 (社科院02年) >f#P(  
目前在中国正进行着一场意义深远的社会和经济改革。(同上) /%9D$\  
At present, a sweeping and profound social and economic reform is being carried out in China. }# 'wy  
中国的饮食方式正在发生许多变化。(武汉大学04年考博英语翻译试题) ,dn9tY3  
Many changes are taking place in China's diet style. z+I'N4*^  
B. 增加主语——增加泛指的主语:we, one, you 2^w3xL"   
Passage 8(人民大学02年) u~n*P``{  
然而,要想了解一个人的禀赋资质和实际能力如何,考试是考不出名堂来的。 i^Vb42%y  
But examinations are of vain if you want to know about the gift, intelligence or practical abilities of a person. j#QJ5(#  
凡事应该适度,适度是最安全的。(天津大学01年) )[RLCZ  
One should be moderate in all things, and moderation is always the safest way. r/zuo6"5  
C.增加主语——增加it(多用it):在英语中,代词it作主语的情况非常多。因为这个代词表示的意义非常丰富,它可以表示汉语中的气候、天气、时间等无主句,如“下雨了(It is raining),三点了(It's 3 o'clock now)等,当然,它还可以充当强调句和形式主语句型的主语。   学好翻译是很困难的  It is difficult to learn translation well. 6" fYSn>  
自从理查德·尼克松(Richard Nixon)同癌症宣战以来已经有30年了。(武汉大学03年) li'h&!|]  
It is already three decades since Richard Nixon declared war on cancer. 0$)s? \  
 汉译英翻译——找谓语 ~!UC:&UKo  
找谓语的方法: I?` }h}7.  
1、汉语的动词没有人称、时态、数和语态的变化;英语的动词有人称、时态、数和语态的变化;多关注主谓一致原则,多注意英语句子的语法结构。 nZZNx  
2、汉语是明显的动作性语言,多数句子都有明显的谓语动词;英语中只有动词才能充当谓语。 >qj.!npQD  
3、汉语中有名词、形容词、数词、主谓短语和介词短语充当谓语,有是字句;英语中用系表结构来翻译。 _: @~ bHd  
4、汉语有连动式;英语没有两个动作直接叠加的情况。 wZ6D\I  
1)用and连接并列谓语的动作; 3FRz&FS:j  
2)用非谓语动词连接; YXCltM E  
3)用介词短语代替动作。 kFKc9}7W  
5、汉语的谓语有兼语式;英文中用主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语来翻译。 E;!pK9wL|  
     句型:请某人做某事;让某人做某事;叫某人做某事 8B#;ffkmN  
6、汉语中少用被字句; 9V&} %  
汉语中有:把、受、让、给、由、受到、得到、加以、得以、为...所、由...来、是...的,等时,英语多用被动句翻译。 Mx9#YJ?t~  
7、汉语有存现句; ZK:dhwer  
英语多用 There be 句型翻译。 %smQ` u|  
例:过去的五十年不是发明创新的黄金时期。 1Q_  C  
The past fifty years was not the gold age for invention and innovation. VB>KT(n-b  
Passage 2 )Z6bMAb0'N  
1.实行改革开放以来改变了过去封闭半封闭状态,提高了我国经济水平。 -& Qm"-?:  
  Since China started to implement the policy of opening up to the outside, its total or semi-closure has been changed and the level of its economy and technology has been raised. eC%uu  
Passage 8 @ig'CF%(  
迄今为止,教育工作还没有找到比考试更有效、更可靠的方法,着实有点离奇。 3On IAk3  
So far, there has been no way which is more effective and reliable than exams in education, which seems kind of queer. L8OW@)|  
我相信,中国加入世贸组织后,外商参与中国投资活动的机会将越来越多,自身发展的空间也越来越大。 3a9%djGq  
I believe that, after China's entry into WTO, more opportunities will be created for the participation of foreign entrepreneurs in the investment activities in China and lager space for their own development. b-*3]gB  
投资规模偏大。 2P \k;T(  
The investment scale is too large. /|7@rH([{  
很多道路太窄。 EY3x o-H  
Many roads are too narrow. TUE*mDRmP  
Passage 13 LV4\zd6  
此外,对于那些刚刚脱贫的人们,他们目前的生活状况必须改善。 2MT_5j5[N  
Furthermore, the present living conditions must be improved for those who have just freed themselves from poverty. $d b]b   
Passage 5 \9;SOAv  
“学习”也许意味着对一系列细小而不相关的行为按新的顺序重新排列。 3[q&%Z.  
Learning may mean that a number of small independent acts are arranged in a new order. (pBPf  
美国的经济体制主要是围绕私人企业和市场为导向建立起来的。 E lf ' 1  
The economy system of USA is mainly set up centering on the private enterprises and market orientation. |W't-}yf  
Passage 13 NO$n-<ag  
1 zo0/<dk  
他们的生产和生活状况没有从根本上被改变。 ZD$W>'m{F  
Their production and living conditions have not been changed fundamentally. a#i85su  
Passage 12 8PN/*Sa  
=J@M, mbHg  
各国的人权问题主要由各国政府和人民自己来解决,世界的人权问题要由世界各国政府和人民共同参与来解决。 3HtLD5%Q  
wEQ7=Gy x  
Each country's human rights problem should be solved mainly by its own government and people, while that of the world by governments and people from all over the world together. i|`b2msvd  
Passage 4 / 7i>0J]  
我们花很少的钱就能够买到一份日报。 A~2U9f+\  
The fact that we spend very little money to buy a piece of daily . tYe+7s  
市政府去年启动了一项净空工程,关闭了大气污染严重的企业。 '7'*+sgi$  
%1Ex{H hb  
The municipal government started an air decontamination project at the end of last year closing the  enterprises that course heavy pollution. E1 | >O  
;8| D4+  
从社会总体、长远的利益出发,政府可以运用税收、转移支付等方式适当调节收入分配差距,扶助弱势群体,维护整个社会的和谐、稳定 dz3KBiq  
From the society as a whole and long-term profit perspectives, the government can use tax or transfer payment to appropriately adjust the difference of income distribution so as to help the weak and maintain harmony and stability of the society. Lc&L F*  
汉译英翻译——加修饰 2 }9of[  
定语修饰语和状语修饰语,主要有三种:单个单词、短语、从句。 z;c~(o@4  
2H, ^i,  
1、加单词:单词作定语一般在中心词前;而作状语可在最开头,可在动词前,还可在句末。 d9j+==S <  
例:一个春天的傍晚,父母在园中设宴。 U-U^N7  
On a spring evening, my parents gave a banquet in the garden. QU#u5sX A  
2、加短语:介词短语、分词短语和不定式短语作定语总是在名词后面,作状语的位置十分灵活,介词短语作定语最适合修饰名词,动词修饰名词时,一般用不定式短语作定语,介乎期间的用分词;作状语时,介词短语一般表时间和地点,分词短语一般表伴随和原因,不定式短语表目的。 S= NGJ 0  
9_$i.@L 1  
3、加从句: fZq_]1(/uP  
例:因此,我们的苦闷基本上比西方人微小微少,因为苦闷的强弱是随着欲望和野心的大小而转移的。 sl Qxz;t  
Therefore we suffer less depression than the westerns because the degree of our suffering varing with that of our desire and ambition. /k$H"'`j4  
Passage 8 %Voq"}}N  
各学科的发展日新月异,令人称奇,但衡量知识、能力的方法却依然如故,非常原始。 k@[P\( a3b  
5xS ze;  
Contrast to the rapid and astonishing development in various subjects,  the way of measuring knowledge and ability remains as before, rather primitive. x)]_]_vX  
Passage 8 FX->_}kL=  
尽管有不少人认定,考试能衡量出一个人的知识水平,但实际情况恰恰相反,这是有目共睹的。 ~!Ar`= [  
Though some people believe that exams could weigh one's knowledge level, the truth is just the opposite, as is obvious to all. \{GBaMwG~  
Passage 8 (V06cb*42[  
要想考察一个人死记硬背的本事和在极大压力下快速答题的技巧,考试或许是个不错的办法。 e@`"V,i  
Exams may be a not-so-bad solution to test the ability to remember something by rote or to answer questions quickly yet under great pressure. 5PRS|R7  
ZaZm$.s n  
然而,要想了解一个人的禀赋资质和实际能力如何,考试是考不出名堂来的。 b3vPGR  
but they are of vain if you want to know about the gift, intelligence or practical abilities of a person. O^2@ 9 w  
年通用考博英语翻译讲义 C&1()U  

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